Recent research has highlighted the fact that the global map of development has changed. Income inequality has reduced since the industrial revolution of two centuries ago, and new geographies of development have emerged since the turn of the millennium, in several spheres of development. Baldwin, UNDP, and others have referred to the ‘rise of the South as a result of this change.
Human rights are central to global development. The United Nations (UN) has stated that the right to development is a basic human right. Yet, the world is still facing significant challenges. Around 700 million people are starving and another 128 million require humanitarian assistance. In addition, 65 million people have been forced to flee their homes because of conflict, and 24 million children cannot attend school.
While the United Nations has made efforts to establish supranational human rights bodies in the region, these efforts have been unsuccessful. This is primarily due to a lack of a regional umbrella, which has hindered the establishment of regional human rights systems. For example, in East Africa, the East African Court of Justice dismissed a case involving Mike Campbell (Pvt.) Limited, which was later heard by the SADC Tribunal in November 2008.
Since the Second World War, there have been three regional human rights regimes established to promote human rights. These agreements are binding upon states and are set up under an intergovernmental organization or international political body. Of these, the European system is the most robust. The Council of Europe was formed in 1949 by 10 countries from Western Europe to promote human rights and prevent totalitarianism. The Organization of American States, on the other hand, was founded in 1948 to promote regional peace and security.
A human rights-based approach to development is important for developing countries, especially the poorest ones. This approach uses advocacy, social mobilization, and legal arguments to protect the rights of people. In addition to poor communities, it can help vulnerable groups such as sexual minorities. It also recognizes the value of equality and non-discrimination.
A human rights-based approach to development has its own challenges. It cannot directly link all forms of development to specific human rights. For example, a fight against corruption is related to rights to information and participation but is also a complex issue that involves the institutions and interactions between different centers of power within a country.
A human rights-based approach to development is also applicable at a subregional level. In Africa, for example, the REC of Southern Africa and the Economic Community of West African States have been created and are becoming increasingly important to human rights protection.
Education is a key driver for global development, and it is a human right. It improves health, gender equality, peace, stability, and economic growth. It also reduces poverty and fosters social cohesion. It is also essential to ensure equal opportunity for all. Currently, 264 million children are not attending school. However, it is possible to improve this statistic. The right policies and investments can help develop a country’s educational system.
Western-style education systems have received much criticism from critics, who claim that they do not promote the values of developing countries. However, many developing countries are modeled on western education systems and have a primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. Many developed countries have a system that focuses on academic subjects and awards qualifications to students who pass external examinations.
While the proportion of children who are out of school has decreased worldwide, it still stands at around 17 percent. Nearly half of all unschooled children live in sub-Saharan Africa. Of these, more than 85 percent are not receiving the minimum curriculum. Moreover, approximately 617 million youth are illiterate, and 750 million adults do not have basic literacy and math skills. The most significant percentage of illiterate people are in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
While focusing on schools is essential for developing countries, the importance of adult education cannot be overlooked. The challenges that international human development poses are largely a result of adult beliefs, practices, prejudices, and actions. Therefore, reducing development education to schooling would be a disservice to everyone involved.
The global education crisis is exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has left millions of children out of school. This epidemic has also increased global learning poverty. The UNESCO Institute of Statistics and the World Bank created an indicator to measure this learning poverty, which measures the number of children who are unable to read by age 10.
Poor countries tend to have inferior education systems, and their schools often lack basic educational resources and are in a terrible state. Also, their attendance rates differ. In India, 25% of their teaching staff don’t show up for work. Nevertheless, the teachers themselves report high job satisfaction.
To improve health outcomes and prevent disease, low and middle-income countries must dramatically increase their health care spending. This means expanding the reach of key health commodities and interventions. This is where the Global Health Development Institute can help. This nonprofit supports efforts to improve health outcomes in diverse communities and envisions new models of health care financing and delivery. It also advocates for equitable access to health care.
The World Bank Group is committed to helping governments achieve universal health coverage by 2030. Health care coverage transforms individuals’ lives and improves the well-being of societies. It also helps countries make the most of their human capital. Health epidemics pose significant risks to the health of people and the global economy. The World Bank Group is working with countries to address these threats through investments in public health systems.
The United States government is also actively engaged in global health programs. It supports programs in more than 70 low-income countries. These efforts are carried out through multilateral organizations and through bilateral programs. These efforts are supported by federal agencies and are funded by the U.S. government. Further, they serve as an important vehicle for achieving the U.S.’s development goals.
There are three main driving forces behind the global health movement. First, knowledge about differences among societies is increasing. Second, information technology has improved the cross-border movements of persons. Through this, people in less developed countries can experience differences in health conditions, lifestyles, medical education, and technologies. The third driving force is economic globalization. This trend enables more people to move between developing and developed nations.
The MSc in Health and International Development program develops the critical skills and knowledge necessary to solve global health challenges. Students learn to assess the multi-disciplinary evidence on global health issues and apply that knowledge to policy-making. In addition, the curriculum is continually updated to reflect emerging issues. In addition to this, students learn the principles of research design through a compulsory Research Design course.
There are many ways that you can help the victims of disasters and emergencies. While most disasters are well-publicized, there are many that receive little attention, and you can get involved by supporting a nonprofit organization in a disaster zone. Disasters can affect thousands of communities around the world, and disaster relief efforts are vital to their recovery.
Natural disasters cost lives and livelihoods and can weaken an economy. Emergency spending for disaster relief can depress tax revenues and further erode economic growth. Moreover, disasters can destroy businesses and reduce government tax revenues, making poverty levels worse. According to a report by the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), nearly seventy percent of disaster losses are attributable to extreme weather events. Additionally, climate change is predicted to push an additional 100 million people into extreme poverty by 2030.
Disaster relief efforts were historically carried out by private citizens, charitable organizations, and other institutions. In the United States, American church groups and other organizations often organized relief efforts by shipping supplies abroad. Many American missionaries went to the countries affected by disasters, offering assistance to local survivors. Occasionally, U.S. policymakers also supported these efforts. In one case, Congress even authorized U.S. naval ships to transport donated aid supplies abroad. In addition, diplomats sometimes joined local American communities in disaster-stricken countries.
As the United States government’s involvement in disaster relief abroad grew, it gained increasing prominence. In the post-World War II era, U.S. government involvement in disaster relief abroad grew dramatically. The United States was now the leading donor to international disaster relief. Its military, economic strength and diplomatic footprint made it the ideal country to respond to disasters.
Disaster relief is an essential component of international development. Disasters often occur in remote areas, and relief efforts are essential for the long-term recovery of communities. The United States government is one of the world’s largest donors of bilateral assistance, and its Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance coordinates the government’s response to international catastrophes. The Department of Defense and State also participates in disaster relief and recovery efforts, as do numerous private companies and non-governmental organizations.